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Adaptation (Climate change)

Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimise the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that well planned, early adaptation action saves money and lives later. 

Climate Action, European Comision, 2016 (http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/adaptation/index_en.htm)


Broadening means repeating a transition project in other contexts and connecting it to other transition initiatives. An example of 'repeating' is starting a similar project at a new location or in a new domain. An example of 'connecting' is creating a network of transition initiatives and people (linking different niches).

Van den Bosch and Rotmans, 2008 (http://sus-i.nl/_files/KCT_transitieboekje_02.pdf)

Business models

A business model describes the rationale of how an organisation creates, delivers and captures value.

Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y., 2010. Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers 1st ed., Wiley.

Circular economy

A circular economy is one that is restorative and regenerative by design, and which aims to keep products, components and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles".

Ellen Macarthur Foundation, available at (http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy)


Co-evolution describes a process of interaction between two or more systems or elements of a system: "Transitions are not driven by single factors? but involve co-evolutionary developments between multiple dimensions (technology, industry, markets, consumer behavior, policy, infrastructure, spatial arrangements and cultural meaning)." (Geels 2012).

Geels, 2012 Loorbach, 2007

Community of Practice

A Community of Practice (CoP) is a group of people sharing a common goal or passion. It?s a meeting place where professionals share analyses, inform and advise each other and develop new practices. Beforehand it is not clear what the exact results will be. Practicing and developing are key, together with passing the results to a wider audience.

Andringa, J., 2015. A Community of Practice as a tool in Transitions ? the case of CoPFinc. Transition Hub


Learning as much as possible from a transition project within a specific context (or niche). For example learning about radically new ways of thinking, behaviour, regulation or infrastructure.

Van den Bosch and Rotmans, 2008 (http://sus-i.nl/_files/KCT_transitieboekje_02.pdf)


Processes that make niche innovations competitive within unchanged selection environments (fit and conform) or processes that change mainstream selection environments favourable to the path-breaking innovation (stretch-and-transform).

Smith and Raven, 2012, p1034

Fitting and conforming

Processes that make niche innovations competitive within unchanged selection environments. For example, adapting your innovation or business model to the existing rules/regulations.

Smith and Raven, 2012, p1030


Foresight is one of the modern ways of knowing about the future. It can be understood as a systematic approach and a broad set of methods aimed to help structure and cope with the complexity and uncertainty inherent in futures. Alternative futures can be explored and analysed regarding the present in order to come up with actions to reach a desirable future.

Dufva, M., 20015, Knowledge creation in Foresight. Blop Entry. (http://mikkodufva.com/index.php/2016/01/25/knowledge-creation-in-foresight/)

Grassroots innovation

Networks of activists and organisations generating novel bottom?up solutions for sustainable development; solutions that respond to the local situation and the interests and values of the communities involved. In short, they are community-led solutions for sustainability.

Seyfang, G., and A. Smith, 2007, ?Grassroots Innovations for Sustainable Development: Towards a New Research and Policy Agenda.? Environmental Politics 16 (4), p584 ?603 (http://community.eldis.org/.5ad5051c/Seyfang and Smith.pdf)

Incremental innovation

Gradual technical or organisational change that emerges with relatively little change in terms of the societal embedding of that technology or sector.

Elzen, Boelie, and Anna Wieczorek, 2005, "Transitions towards sustainability through system innovation." Technological forecasting and social change 72.6, p651-661.


A landscape is the exogenous environment of a system that cannot be directly and purposefully influenced. Changes on the landscape level usually occur slowly and exert pressures on the subjacent levels. It is therefore also referred to as the macro-level of the MLP.

Geels, 2012 Geels, 2011 Geels and Schot, 2007

Life-long learning

Learning process by which people acquire the knowledge and skills they need to fulfil their aspirations and contribute to their societies.

UNESCO Edcucation Statregy 2014-20120. (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002312/231288e.pdf)


The macro-level, or landscape is where societal culture and values lie.

Narbeshaus, M.; Ashford, C; Buhr, M.; Hanisch, F.; Sengun, K. And Tuncer, B., 2011, Effective change strategies for the Great Transition. Conference backgrond paper, Smart CSOs conference 14-15 March 2011, London. (http://www.smart-csos.org/images/Documents/Smart%20CSOs%20Report%20english.pdf)