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  1. Piret Stern Dahl
  2. E-waste Challenge
  3. Saturday, 23 January 2016
What regulations apply to your country?

Share what you have found out about the regulatory framework in your own country.

This discussion is part of the learning nugget What happens to e-waste around the world? in the first module of The E-waste Challenge.
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The regulatory framework is still in infancy stage which is a matter of concern. Majority of policy makers fail to understand the gravity of situation in India. The need for clearances from Govt. authorities are highly unorganised too.
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  1. more than a month ago
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On a national level my country still does not have any e-waste regulations. Even regulation on general waste is very minimal. But companies that want to trade e-waste on an international level will have to comply to the Basel Convention, as my country has ratified this convention only recently.
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The e-waste in Denmark is treated according to the WEEE Directive. The waste categories are further divided and sorted to fractions registered by the Danish Producer Responsibility system. Depending on the fraction and/or the grade, the e-waste is processed for reuse, recycling and disposal.
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On a national level Dominican Republic still does not have any e-waste regulations. But companies that want to make a transboundary movement of e-waste will have to comply to the Basel Convention.
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Switzerland imports the majority of its EEE ie the volume consumed is great that what is manufactured in the country. This coupled with the risk that government would impose heavier regulations on producers through a government driven take-back system, the Official take-back system is implemented according to the ORDEE. Returning of EEE has been simplified to encourage consumers to return their items either to local recycling centers or electronics stores. The items are then transported to the appropriate recycling center and dealt with in the correct manner. There exists dismantling facilities that are in partnership with social institutes
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Well as India and China are the highest producer of E waste there are some issues with the rules and regulations in India the rules and regulations came into force in 2011 its too late and thus its lies in the there without proper implementimplement and lack of awareness the government just make rules and regulations but forget it to implement it in a right and a hard way. May be there are few corporate funding them. Unless and until people don't know about the rules and regulations its really hard to implement thus the government should focus on awareness about the E waste rules and regulations..
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Canada signed and ratified the Basal Convention in August 1992, along with adding an additional premium in the consumer purchase of electronics as a fee for the recycling cost in some of the provinces. In 2003 a not for profit program “Electronics Product Stewardship Canada” was introduced to design programs for the electronics end of life disposal. This program saved 500 000 tons of e waste across Canada’s landfills.

On June 8, 2015 the Electronics Products Stewardship Canada (EPSC) updated their Electronics Recycling Standard (ERS) to a R2 (Responsible Recycling) prerequisite by upgrading to the standards set by SERI (Sustainable Electronics Recycling International) that harmonizes ERS internationally.

To continue on improvements, the EPSC requires “In addition to the R2 Standard, recyclers must also comply with the following Canadian requirements:”
• Evidence of actively processing material in conformance with R2 and additional EPSC requirements.
• No use of child or prison labour.
• Evidence of Workers’ Compensation and general liability insurance coverage.
• A process to notify EPRA of reportable incidents.
• Evidence of financial assurance.
• Evidence of the use of approved downstream recyclers

The caveats however have come from the Canadian federal legislation of “The Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations “(EIHWHRMR) as they operate under only a few basic rules. The most destructive interpretation has been found in the ‘intact’ vs. ‘not intact’ appendage. This is where the export of e-waste dumping to developing countries found their loophole.

Since 2011, the Environment Canada’s Enforcement Branch have take action in 176 investigations for violations under EIHWHRMR in which to date there have been 19 prosecutions for non compliance with the provisions of the EIHWHRMR with some still pending before the courts.
References
  1. http://epsc.ca/epsc-electronics-recycling-standard-ers-2015/
  2. http://epsc.ca/wp-content/uploads/EPSC-_ERS-2015-_Statement.pdf
  3. https://www.ec.gc.ca/gdd-mw/default.asp?lang=En&n=5A86A160-1
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_waste_by_country
  5. http://environmentalcomplianceinsider.com/topstories/the-law-of-e-waste-what-are-canadian-companies-required-to-do-with-their-e-waste
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My country has ewaste regulations but the needs more emphasis on implementation and enforcement.
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World production of e-waste is estimated at 20-50 m / year (UNEP, 2006), 1-3% of the estimated global municipal waste production (1636 Mt, OECD, 2008 and Cobbing, 2008). The PC, the mobile phones and televisions will contribute 5.5 Mt in 2010 and will amount to 9.8 Mt in 2015.Pio specifically for the European Union, the quantities of e-waste is increasing by 3-5% per year (Hischier et al., 2005), at 3-fold of municipal solid waste. The period
1990-1999 the quantities produced in the 15 countries of the European Union (EU-15) was
approximately 3.3-3.6 kg / inhabitant, while the estimated quantities for the decade from 2000 to 2010 range between 3.9-4.3 kg / capita (Widmer et al., 2005). By using equation (1) Switzerland estimated that produces 9 kg / person / year (Sinha-Khetriwal et al., 2005) Europeans 14 kg / person / year (Goosey, 2004), with the total production of the EU-15 to reach the 5.5 Mt / year, and the EU-27 the 8.3- 9.1 Mt / year (Huisman, 2007). The United States produced about 2.6 Mt (Cobbing, 2008), while China 2.5 Mt (Liu et al., 2006) in 2005. Data for the poorest countries are not readily available, however, India and Thailand is estimated to have produced 0.3 and 0.1 Mt of e-waste in 2007 (Cobbing, 2008). The average annual production of e-waste in Greece for the period 2003-2006 amounted to 170 Kt approximately, representing 3.8% of the total amount of household waste (http://Www.electrocycle.gr). 90% of e-waste for the same period had been mixed with other urban Waste or recycled had with other materials (e.g., scrap metal), without
processing ( "gray recycling";). To address both the growing problem of
"Recycling gray" and the increasing amounts of e-waste, launched in 2004 feature
an authorized alternative e-waste management system with the main responsibilities
collection, transport and treatment in special facilities. The system collected approximately 0.1 Kt for 2005 which was the first of the running time, 31.5 kt for 2007, 47 Kt in 2008 and 25
Kt for the first five months of 2009, exceeding the national target as determined by
European and Greek legislation. These objectives include the separate collection
at least 4 kg / capita / year electronic waste households, a total of 44
Kt / year for Greece. Nevertheless even today appliances available with non
controlled manner resulting in the collection of vendors and their promotion in units
recovery of metals and alloys.
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Recycling Plant in Roorkee opened in January 2010. Despite 23 units currently registered with the Government of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests/ Central Pollution Control Board, as e-waste recyclers /reprocessors, having environmentally sound management facilities,

the entire recycling process more or less still exists in the unorganised sector.

The Cobalt-60 radiation tragedy at Mayapuri in Delhi in which one person lost his life and six persons were admitted to hospital served as a wake up call drawing attention to the mounting quantity of hazardous waste including e-waste in the country while revealing systemic problems on the issue of waste disposal.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has notified the Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008 for effective management of hazardous wastes, including e-waste in the country
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Even though there is a policy for the treatment of e-waste and other hazardous waste, the lack of participation of the people from my country make it hard to accomplish the objectives of being part of the Basel Convention, in which Mexico has accepted its full compromise.
References
  1. http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5286505&fecha=01/02/2013
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In my country our regulation is still in its infancy (draft form waiting to be passed into law). Absence of it has made e-waste management haphazard.

Eric Guantai
RECYKLA INTERNATIONAL
http://WWW.recyklainternational.com
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However in those Countries or region where there is E-waste regulation, the regulation has factored the entire life cycle of a product right from manufacturing to recycling. Thus at the end of it, environmental pollution and health related challenges associated with E-waste are averted while the well being of the society is improved through employment generated through recycling process as the government benefit from taxation from revenue generated.

Eric Guantai
RECYKLA INTERNATIONAL
http://WWW.recyklainternational.com
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Bulgaria is an EU Member State and thus has transposed the WEEE Directive in its legislation. The Waste Management Law sets the overall legal framework for waste collection and management in the country. In addition, there are governmental decrees legislating the collection and treatment of waste packaging, vehicles, batteries, electrical and electronic equipment. In 2013 the WEEE ordinance decree came into force detailing the measures addressed at e-waste in particular. In addition, there are several other ordinance decrees that deal with batteries and engines, placing EEE on the market, household waste separation before collection, etc.
In comparison, France has enacted as many as 8 different regulatory instruments concerning e-waste, while Poland has a lot of proposed legislation but only the minimum EU-required regulatory requirements are enacted.
Bulgaria is party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal since 1996, i.e. four years after the Convention came into force.
The WEEE ordinance decree defines what electrical and electronic wastes are included and these are: big and small household appliances, ICT equipment, cooling and freezing equipment, lamps, medical equipment, control and measurement equipment, automatons. This categorization is further detailed with a list of appliances within each subgroup of e-waste.
The Waste Management Law outlines the standards applied to treating the different types of waste including e-waste and also sets targets for recycling or reuse per type of waste. The Law contains detail instructions for the roles of stakeholders, collection system, how local authorities can procure collection and treatment services from private recyclers, who controls these activities, what requirements should treatment sites meet in order to be operational. It is forbidden to throw away e-waste in landfills. Special collection points are set up for various e-waste products. Overall, the legal framework is clear. I could not comment on the effectiveness as, first of all, the framework is relatively new and, second, no evaluation for the effectiveness has been made so far.
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Also in Italy the e-waste is treated according to the WEEE Directive (first version of 2002), which has been transposed in different Italian laws and decrees (dated 2006 and later modified and updated). The legal framework is in place but when it comes to its enforcement there are huge problems. Recent studies carried out by Legambiente (environmental no profit organization) and Remedia (a consortium for sustainable management of technological waste) have shown that illegal dumping sites are increasing (with consequent effects on environment), many investigations have been carried out and different illegal landfills have been discovered. Even if Italy ratified the Basel convention and the Carabinieri succeed in dismantling illegal international traffickings, this is not always enough to counter organized crime, which makes huge profits with such illegal activities. Enforcement has to be increased, so as awareness among people.
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According to Hellenic Recycling Agency (ΕΟΑΝ - http://www.eoan.gr/en/) there is legislation about e-waste since 2002.

Recycling is performed mainly by companies of private sector that collect and recycle appliances.
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No regulations or legislation in place. They join the general solid waste stream for disposal in the landfill. I think there are some private small informal enterprises which are trying to set up recovery operations which will not meet any environmental or health standards. They may have to clash with the sanitary landfill management to get access to e-waste
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My country Nigeria is more or less a dumping ground for e-waste because most of the electronics that are brought in are not usable. There is no effective regulation at the moment guiding e-waste at both local and national level. The scavengers will pick them alongside other solid wastes and drop at the next dumping ground. There are pockets of informal e-waste managers which nobody can ascertain their mode of operation.
Comment
why dont you start recycling business.
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There is no national e-waste regulation for my country yet. There is barely any credible statistics to support any efforts geared towards wastes management, let alone e-wastes.
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