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  1. Piret Stern Dahl
  2. E-waste Challenge
  3. Saturday, 23 January 2016
What regulations apply to your country?

Share what you have found out about the regulatory framework in your own country.

This discussion is part of the learning nugget What happens to e-waste around the world? in the first module of The E-waste Challenge.
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In 2016, the Central Government notified the E-waste (Management) Rules, which now supersede the E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011. The 2016 Rules came into force from October 1, 2016. A key highlight of the 2016 Rules is the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Under this, producers of electrical and electronic equipment have register and then have mandatory targets to collect e-waste that they generate and to ensure that it channelized to authorized recyclers.

In March 2018, the Rules were amended and the target was reduced to 10 per cent for 2016-17 (as against 20 per cent). This year’s target (2017-18) remains 20%. This target progressively goes up to 70 per cent in the seventh year. In EU, the targets range from 55-80%.

Link for Rule : 2016 (<a target="_blank" href="http://cpcb.nic.in/displaypdf.php?id=UHJvamVjdHMvRS1XYXN0ZS9FLVdhc3RlTV9SdWxlc18yMDE2LnBkZg"; rel="nofollow">http://cpcb.nic.in/displaypdf.php?id=UHJvamVjdHMvRS1XYXN0ZS9FLVdhc3RlTV9SdWxlc18yMDE2LnBkZg<;/a>==)
Amendment in 2018 : <a target="_blank" href="http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/e" rel="nofollow">http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/e</a>-%20waste%20amendment%20notification%202018184020.pdf
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In my country orange list is applied for importing from European union,that is no hazardous waste will be disposed in our territory.
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My country has provisions in Constitutional law, Law on environment and Law on waste. Also there are plans for e waste on state levek
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section 1.1

Activities
1. Prepare an e-waste briefing

I have been preparated checklist for e-waste to know what quantity is generating in my community

2. Why are we e-waste hoarders?
we are e -waste hoarders of many electrical equipment at house and work, for exemple, high cost of maintenance.
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The rules are laid down very clearly and stated. The only problem is vigilance and sustenance.
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Indian Government already has E Waste and Batteries Management and handling rules in place. They are aware of the menace it can cause.
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What regulations apply to your country?
: As far as my country, Nepal, is concerned, we are yet to have official laws, plans and policies regarding e-waste management. Though, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment has attempted to control and manage the e-waste through document prepared to control and manage the hazardous material and solid waste management rules and regulations. Being specific, things are yet to be done.

Share what you have found out about the regulatory framework in your own country.

: Before having regulatory framework at place, Government must have some research based documents which they lag. Because of the same, Government is being unable to come up with policies to check the ewaste at import point itself.

This discussion is part of the learning nugget What happens to e-waste around the world? in the first module of The E-waste Challenge.
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In my country Sudan, improper waste management practice is common. Waste is mixed together including electronic waste (e-waste) (Saad, 2013; Abdellah and Balla, 2013). Regarding legislations, there is no specific law tackling e-waste in particular. Sudan Environmental Protection Act (2001) is the main environmental regulator document. In 2006, Sudan ratified Basel Convention on the Control of the Trans boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes (1989) (Basel convention, 2014). However, e-waste Tsunami necessitates more regulations update and activation, not only signature in the papers without real commitment.
The quantity of e-waste is expected to increase worldwide according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations University (UNU), (2009) and of course Sudan is not an exception from this tsunami. For example, let us take one example of small IT items such as mobile phones. Researchers attribute the rise of mobile phones waste to many reasons of them:
- mobile phones have the shortest lifetime compared to the other electronic products (Smith, 2010; Slade, 2006)
- the eagerness to obtain new mobile phone brand (Wilhelm, et al., 2011)
- etc
In Sudan, the number of mobile phones subscribers has jumped dramatically from 4 million in 2006 to 27 million in 2013, (Sudan National Telecommunication Corporation (SNTC), 2013). Ultimately, these used phones devices soon or later will be out of work and will end up as an e-waste. When we add the already exist e-waste to the expected one, the e-waste scenario in Sudan will be more complicated and worsen. Therefore, if nothing is done from now, our environment and health will be in danger from e-waste (mobile phones wastes), (Osibanjo and Nnorom, 2007; Robinson, 2009). Unfortunately, in Sudan there is no current plan to face the existing or future e-waste!
So, developing policy, knowing the quantity of our e-waste, assessing our community awareness and practice regarding electronics disposal is extremely needed as an initial step towards tackling e-waste in Sudan.

References
- Abdellah, A. M., and Balla, Q. I., (2013). Domestic Solid Waste Management and its Impacts on Human Health and the Environment in Sharg El Neel Locality, Khartoum State, Sudan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 16 (22), 1538-1544.
- Basel convention, (2014). Parties to the Basel Convention. Available at: http://www.basel.int/Countries/StatusofRatifications/PartiesSignatories/tabid/1290/Default.aspx.
- Osibanjo, O, Nnorom, I. C., (2007). The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries. Waste Manag Res 2007;25:489–501.
- Robinson, B. H., (2009). E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 2009;408:183–91.
- Saad, S.A. (2013). Management of Hospitals Solid Waste in Khartoum State. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 8567-8582.
- Slade, G. (2006). Made to break: technology and obsolescence in America. Boston: Harvard University press.
- Smith, A. (2010). Mobile access 2010: a project of the PewResearchCenter. Available at: http:/http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile-Access-2010.aspx
- SNTC (2013). Core indicators report. Available at: http://ntc.gov.sd/index.php/ar/publications-ar/indicators-reports-ar/14-ntc-departments/research-a-studies/994-2013.
- Sudan Environmental Protection Act, (2001). Available in Parliament web site in Arabic at: http://www.parliament.gov.sd/ar/index.php/site/LigsualtionVeiw/210.
- UNEP and UNU (2009), Recycling- from e-waste to resources, Sustainable innovation and technology transfer industrial sector studies, July 2009.
- Wilhelm, W., Yankov, A., Patrick Magee, (2011). Mobile phone consumption behaviour and the need for sustainability innovations. Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, 7(2) 20-40.
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In Zimbabwe, the nearest legislation that could be used for addressing e-waste is the Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (Statutory Instrument 10 of 2007). However this SI is not comprehensive enough for e-waste, because although it lists e-waste as a hazardous waste, it does not go into detail on its management.

Legislation for e-waste is therefore being developed, and has not yet been passed into law.
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The challenge seems not so much about those who abide by the rules and/ or have morals, but the 'rogue' types ... recently read about a company signing an MoU with a newly created Somali company to take lots of (e-)waste from a much more developed country ... newly developed/ country with no means to process it, sounds like a nightmare waiting to happen for the people living locally!
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I studied Trinidad and Tobago. The country has ratified the Basel Convention and is home to the regional training centre for the Caribbean. The Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions have also been ratified by the country. Although the recycling infrastructure in Trinidad and Tobago is currently lacking, efforts are being made, largely through NGOs and on an independent level (for example the Basel Convention Regional Training Centre), to raise awareness and encourage the recycling of e-waste within the country.
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my country is Zimbabwe there is no e-waste regulation policy in place yet. e- waste is mixed in the dustbins and there is high informal collection and recycling practised in the backyard. This has resulted in increased e-waste dumping in the landfills.
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Actually the e-waste management is not cover by national laws or policies in Honduras, it is a vacuum that must be resolved. At this time the Environmental Secretariat is working on a proposal for the Integral Management Waste Law, in which we are trying to link the e-waste management directions and the conditions to make possible the creation of a specific regulation. Anyway, the authorities awareness it is important to make possible this actions.
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On a national level my country still does not have any e-waste regulations.
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The regulatory framework is still in its early stages in Uganda. In the mean time, according to the National E waste Management Strategy (2012) the e-waste problem has turned into a crisis primarily for two reasons. First, it is hazardous because it contains numerous substances, many of which are toxic, and hence, pollution is created upon its disposal. Second, it is being generated at an alarming rate due to the constant evolution of technology, which in turn has driven the sale of new products, as well as the frequent obsolescence of electronics. Sales of other electronic gadgets - computers, TVs, monitors and console game platforms - are growing internationally from 10 percent to 400 percent annually.

Fortunately, the Ratification of Treaties Act 5/1998 provides for the procedure for ratification of treaties in accordance with article 123 of the Constitution, which allows Uganda to ratify international conventions related to e-waste. This treaty has allowed Uganda to be part of the international conventions concerning e-waste. Uganda is a signatory to Rotterdam, the Basel, the Stockholm conventions, the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade of 1987, the world charter for nature of 1982, the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer of 1987, the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM).
References
  1. http://www.ict.go.ug/sites/default/files/Resource/Electronic%20Waste%20Management%20Policy%20for%20Uganda.pdf
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Despite the regulations, the reality with respect to e-waste management is quite different; there is not a solid official take-back (collection) system; e-waste is often mixed with residual waste and dumped into landfill (and less than half of them are sanitary landfill).
Informal collection of e-waste is quite common; especially for e-waste from household.
It is a source of income, dismantlers collect e-waste from house to house, dismantle segregate and recover all the material that wan re-enter into the market: plastic and especially precious metal (cupper, zinc, aluminum, gold....).
E-waste is not the only hazardous waste mixed with solid / residual waste and dumped... same things happens to medical waste...
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In The Philippines, at national level, under the DENR Administrative Order 2013-22, E waste are classified as hazardous waste with code M506, which includes “all waste electrical and electronic equipment that contain hazardous components such as lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polibrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that includes its peripherals i.e. ink, cartridge, toners, etc.” DAO 2012-22 does not include any threshold concentration of the hazardous substances listed under M506 leading to the classification of these waste as hazardous.
Specific E-waste regulation: there is not yet a regulation on E-waste in force. DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) has completed the draft “Guidelines On The Environmentally Sound Management (Esm) Of Waste Electrical And Electronic Equipment (Weee)” which has been drafted in April 2015.

As for myself, I work with an INGO on the mitigation of environmental and health hazards in the e-waste dismantling informal sector in Metro Manila. As part of the program, advocacy is a key component. Together with other I/NGOs and CSOs, we have drafted an EPR bill for ESM of e-waste and we are currently looking for sponsor in the congress to support it.
We have been also invited by DENR/EMB during the public consultation on the new guidelines.
While these guidelines are for producers only (including sellers, retailers, importers) , the EPR bill include provision for the informal sector too, as part of the e-waste stream too.
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In France, the e-waste regulations are driven by European Directive. The first EU directive 2002/96/EC was then revised and ended up to the new Directive: "Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE2). This new directive introduces target objectives for collection:

"Article 7
Collection rate
1. Without prejudice to Article 5(1), each Member State shall ensure the implementation of the ‘producer responsibility’ principle and, on that basis, that a minimum collection rate is achieved annually. From 2016, the minimum collection rate shall be 45 % calculated on the basis of the total weight of WEEE collected in accordance with Articles 5 and 6 in a given year in the Member State concerned, expressed as a percentage of the average weight of EEE placed on the market in the three preceding years in that Member State. Member States shall ensure that the volume of WEEE collected evolves gradually during the period from 2016 to 2019, unless the collection rate laid down in the second subparagraph has already been achieved.
From 2019, the minimum collection rate to be achieved annually shall be 65 % of the average weight of EEE placed on the market in the three preceding years in the Member State concerned, or alternatively 85 % of WEEE generated on the territory of that Member State.
Until 31 December 2015, a rate of separate collection of at least 4 kilograms on average per inhabitant per year of WEEE from private households or the same amount of weight of WEEE as was collected in that Member State on average in the three preceding years, whichever is greater, shall continue to apply

[...]

Article 11
Recovery targets
1. Regarding all WEEE separately collected in accordance with Article 5 and sent for treatment in accordance with Articles 8, 9 and 10, Member States shall ensure that producers meet the minimum targets set out in Annex V.
2. The achievement of the targets shall be calculated, for each category, by dividing the weight of the WEEE that enters the recovery or recycling/preparing for re-use facility, after proper treatment in accordance with Article 8(2) with regard to recovery or recycling, by the weight of all separately collected WEEE for each category, expressed as a percentage.
Preliminary activities including sorting and storage prior to recovery shall not count towards the achievement of these targets.

Annex V is detailing all minimum recovery targets referred in aricle 11

In addition there are still commitments for eco-conception of products, and the obligation for the treatment of some components and of substances that are defined as dangerous


The implementation in the French Regulation is well described in the report by Ademe:
http://www.ademe.fr/sites/default/files/assets/documents/rapport_annuel_deee_donnees_2014_201603.pdf

What is still unclear for me is the consequences in French Regulation of the new EU Directive "WEEE2".
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While my country has long been a Party to the Basel Convention, implementation of their guidelines have been minimal. I think a greater emphasis needs to be placed on education and garnering public awareness and support. Take-back initiatives were launched by some mobile companies but due to a lack of advertising and public awareness, among other issues, the project fell flat.
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In Argentina, unlike other countries in the world and the region, there is no formal system at the national level that allows transport and proper management of WEEE. What there are voluntary programs of municipalities and businesses, insufficient. In the absence of specific legislation for this waste stream, ending in a gray area of ​​the law. By origin are household waste, but, by type, are hazardous waste. This situation makes it difficult not only discarding by consumers, but also transport and treatment of these artifacts.

Among the municipalities with programs that try to divert this waste stream from landfills are Buenos Aires, Rosario, Mendoza and others. But this is not enough.

Following the examples of legislation in force in other countries, the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) appears as the right and just beginning to achieve the diversion and subsequent treatment of WEEE. Manufacturers and importers should be responsible for the post-consumer stage of their products. Otherwise, they are local governments or taxpayers themselves who bear the responsibility. In countries where the REP is applied, companies are legally responsible and financially managing their own products once their useful life is complete. In the country there are already several companies with voluntary programs WEEE management.

In 2012 he lost before Parliament a bill that sought to establish a comprehensive management system for WEEE under the principle of the REP. The project was stopped in the Committee on Budget and Finance of the House of Representatives. In this parliamentary year, advance with any of the existing projects in Congress is urgent to have an effective and responsible management of such waste throughout the country. So we avoid that what today is a serious problem ends up being a bomb pollution we can not control.
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