1. Piret Stern Dahl
  2. E-waste Challenge
  3. Saturday, January 23 2016, 09:06 PM
How aware are people of the dangers of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)?

How aware are people in your country about the dangers of pollutants contained in some plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment? What action is being taken – or should be taken?

This discussion is part of the learning nugget E-waste across borders in the second module of The E-waste Challenge.
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Shelley Soetosenojo Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In my opinion people in my country are in general not aware about the dangers of POPs in some plastics and electronic equipment, because it happens quite often that waste containing plastics and other material are burned in the open. Even though there is a regular and mostly national waste pick up system in place.
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Luis Martinez Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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A weight that I'm electronic engineer, I was not informed about this risk. People generally only know about the risk of PCB transformers and citizens have been made campaigns to eliminate it. While there are not a lot of publicity , the National Institute of Industrial Technology ( INTI ) has a specific area to work on both the Basel and Stockholm. http://crsbasilea.inti.gov.ar
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Eric Guantai Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In my opinion people in my country are in general not aware about the dangers of POPs in some plastics and electronic equipment; because it happens quite often that waste containing plastics and other material are burned in the open.

Nevertheless in urban areas where we have recycling facilities these plastics find their way into these centers where they are recycled alongside other types of plastics.
Inadequate awareness information on various types of plastics and material compositions and levels of toxic in each especially for E-waste, to help waste separation at source add to this problem including to recycres themselves.

The crude way of getting copper from these cables by burning indicate the level of lack of awareness to the dangers posed not only to the environment but also health wise.
Supportive business environment to investor and recyclers need to be created and attained including supportive incentives. In addition to, promotion in ethical ways of sustainable E-waste management across the board and by all stakeholders supported by efficient and effective legislation.

Eric Guantai
RECYKLA INTERNATIONAL
http://WWW.recyklainternational.com
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Ndifreke Ekaette Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In my country Nigeria, many people don't even know what the called POPs, talkless of the danger. So the best action to be taken is to create awareness.
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Jane Chukwudebelu Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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A large percentage of the people in my country is ignorant of what is called persistent organic pollutants (POPs) let alone the danger it portends.
The first step is enlightenment and awareness for people to have knowledge of what POP is and then how to protect themselves from it.
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Beate Vought Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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Activity 3: What is your country's position on pollutants in plastics (in electronic and electrical equipment, as well as e-waste)?

1. Find out if your country is a party to the Stockholm Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.

Switzerland:
Rotterdam Convention
Signature: 11/09/1998
Ratification: 10/01/2002
Entry Into Force: 10/04/2002

Stockholm Conventions
Signature: 23/05/2001
Ratification: 30/07/2003
Entry Into Force: 17/05/2004

2. What is your country doing about POP-PBDEs?

SWITZERLAND Switzerland has harmonized the regulations on marketing and use of pentaBDE and octaBDE with those laid down in directive 2003/11/EC (24th amendment of directive 76/769/EEC) in the Ordinance on Risk Reduction related to Chemical Products (ORRChem), which entered into force on 1 August 2005. The placing on the market and use of pentaBDE and octaBDE as substance as well as in preparations and in articles with a content of pentaBDE and octaBDE equal to or exceeding 0.1% by mass is prohibited. Excluded from the ban are only the placing on the market and use of pentaBDE and octaBDE (as substance, in preparations and in articles) for analysis and research purposes.

Switzerland has harmonized the regulation on the use of decaBDE in electrical and electronic equipment with the European Commission Decision 2005/717/EC (amending the annex to directive 2002/95/EC). The Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) has published in 2007 a guidance document related to the state of technical progress with regard to the use of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in electrical and electronic equipment. In order to align the Swiss regulation with the practice in the European Community, polymers in electrical and electronic equipment may contain decaBDE. This guidance will be reviewed depending on the technical progress, knowledge of the risk profiles of available substitutes, and changes in the regulation of decaBDE in the European Union.

Information taken from http://www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/risk-management/42073463.pdf

3. Are people aware of the issue?

Those who work in this field are obvious aware of the issue however the general public is less informed on the matter. Once again, education and generating interest are crucial.
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Efstathios Vaitsos Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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Activity 3: What is your country's position on pollutants in plastics (in electronic and electrical equipment, as well as e-waste)?

1. Find out if your country is a party to the Stockholm Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.

Switzerland:
Rotterdam Convention
Signature: 11/09/1998
Entry Into Force: 23/12/2003

Stockholm Conventions
Signature: 23/052001
Ratification:03/05/2006
Entry Into Force: 01/08/2006

2. What is your country doing about POP-PBDEs?

Activity 3: What is your country's position on pollutants in plastics (in electronic and electrical equipment, as well as e-waste)?

1. Find out if your country is a party to the Stockholm Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.

Switzerland:
Rotterdam Convention
Signature: 11/09/1998
Ratification: 10/01/2002
Entry Into Force: 10/04/2002

Stockholm Conventions
Signature: 23/05/2001
Ratification: 30/07/2003
Entry Into Force: 17/05/2004

2. What is your country doing about POP-PBDEs?
The directives on hazardous waste (91/689 and 94/31) although typically included in CMD 19396/1546/97 not been fully implemented because the CMD national hazardous waste planning and regulations of hazardous waste management technologies not published. The result is not to be any kind of management and disposal of hazardous waste in Greece only border transport or temporary storage within epicheiriseon.To basic legislation defining management EP.AP are DIRECTIVE 91/689 / EEC on 'Hazardous Waste "the Council of 12 December 1991 of the European Communities (EEL 377/20 / 31.12.91).

• The main CMD with which was to harmonize national legislation with European Union requirements are:
72751/3054/1985 (Government Gazette 665 B) "Toxic and hazardous waste and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCB / PCT)»
19396/1546/1977 (Government Gazette 604 B) "Measures and terms for the management of hazardous waste"
7589/731/2000 (Government Gazette 514 B) "Measures and conditions for the management of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCB / PCT)»
18083/1098 E.103 / 2003 (Government Gazette 606 B) "disposal / decontamination plans equipment with PCB etc."
To complement the provisions JMD 19396/1546/1977 the CMD issued 2487/455/1999 (Government Gazette 196 B) "Measures and conditions for prevention and reduction of environmental pollution from the incineration of hazardous waste."

• Special sector of hazardous waste is that of medical waste management which applies the JMD 37591/2031/2003 (Official Gazette 1419 B) "Measures and conditions for the management of medical waste from health units." The JMD covers broadly effective management requirements and individual clarifications made in the application.

• The disposal of waste (including hazardous) landfill set in JMD 29407/3508/2002 (Official Gazette 1572 B) "Measures and conditions for the landfill."

• With the management of hazardous waste related to Law 2939/2001 (Government Gazette 179 A) "Packaging and alternative management of packaging and other products - Establishment of National Agency Alternative Packaging and other Products Management (EOEDSAP) and other provisions".
For the implementation of the Law issued PD
82/2004 (Government Gazette 64 A / 2.3.2004)
109/2004 (Government Gazette 75 A / 5.3.2004)
115/2004 (Government Gazette 80 A / 5.3.2004)
116/2004 (Government Gazette 81 A / 5.3.2004)
117/2004 (Government Gazette 82 A / 5.3.2004)
 which refer to measures, terms and programs alternative lubricating oil waste, used tires, used batteries and accumulators, of end-of-life waste-parts-inactivated catalytic converters and electrical and electronic waste respectively.
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Gladys durojaiye Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In my opinion, the awareness level is very poor. I bet several people do not know about this. Come to think of it, how much do people who recycle know? particularly those who engage in informal recycling processes.
Nigeria has a lot to do! it is just not enough to be part of all these conventions....take action please: educate, inform, implement policies, regulate, make laws, etc..
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Tanmoy Ghosh Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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How aware are people of the dangers of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)?

How aware are people in your country about the dangers of pollutants contained in some plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment? What action is being taken – or should be taken?

None of my friends , family and colleagues are aware of the potential danger in recycling plastics contaminated with POPs.
I will explain the dangers of POPs –
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological and photolytic processes, doesn’t disintegrate & stays in the environment for infinite time .
POPs accumulate with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment because of their persistence.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was convened in 2001 with intention to eliminate by severely restrict their production in international community.
POPs are present in pesticides, solvents, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. Some POPs arise natural but most are man-made.
The European Union decided to ban the use of two classes of flame retardants, in particular, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in electric and electronic devices.

Health Effects :
1. POP exposure may cause developmental defects, chronic illnesses, and death.
2. Some POP are carcinogens per IARC, possibly including breast cancer.
3. Many POPs are capable of endocrine disruption within the reproductive system, the central nervous system, or the immune system.
4. People and animals are exposed to POPs mostly through their diet, occupationally, or while growing in the womb.
5. Over 90% of exposure comes from animal product foods due to bioaccumulation in fat tissues through the food chain.
6. POP serum levels increase with age and tend to be higher in females than males.
7. POP exposure can lead to negative health effects especially in the male reproductive system, such as decreased sperm quality and quantity, altered sex ratio and early puberty onset.
8. Females exposed to POPs, altered reproductive tissues and pregnancy outcomes .
9. POPs are lipophilic environmental toxins. The higher the concentration of POPs found in lipoproteins, the higher the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
10. PCBs are very lipophilic, therefore they are easily stored and captured in the fat deposits in human beings. Obese individuals have higher amounts of fat deposits in their body.
11. A study published in 2006 revealed a positive correlation between POP serum levels and type II diabetes in individuals, after other variables, such as age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were adjusted for.

The National Implementation Plan for India for the priority sectors are as
follows:

Pesticides
1. Elimination of aldrin and dieldrin waste stocks;
2. Elimination of obsolete DDT stocks;
3. Establishment of Management Information System for regular reporting of DDT to the
Stockholm Convention on POPs;
4. Development and production of alternatives to POPs pesticides;
5. Development and production of Botanical alternatives to DDT;
6. Development and production of Bio pesticide alternatives especially Bt based biopesticides
to DDT;
7. Development and production of chemical alternatives to DDT;
8. Development and production of alternatives pesticides to Dicofol; and
9. Disposal of DDT packaging material in an environmentally sound manner.
PCBs
10. Strengthen policy and regulatory framework to comply with the obligations under the
Stockholm Convention;

11. Building national capacity
12. Out of 9837 tons of PCBs and PCBs containing oils and corresponding inventory of
PCBs contaminated equipment and wastes, disposal of 1700 tons of pure PCBs and 6000
tons of PCBs contaminated equipment by the end of 2015 to start with;
13. Continue with the updating of nationwide inventory preparation on PCBs containing
transformers and capacitors in use as well as PCBs containing articles in the non power
sectors;
14. Management of PCBs , PCB contaminated equipment and wastes
15. Monitoring the PCB levels in the soil, water and sediment;
16. Monitoring the PCB levels in the food crops, aquatic fauna, poultry, animal feed, higher
mammals including human beings, etc.;
17. Monitoring PCBs contaminated sites and its remediation measures
18. Research and Development actions on
a. Development of vegetable/synthetic liquids.
b. ESM technology for PCB destruction.

Dioxins and Furans
19. Strengthen existing policies and regulations with regard to unintentional releases of
POPs;
20. Promote information, education and raise public awareness;
21. Augment analytical Infrastructure for monitoring Dioxin and Furans releases from
source categories listed in Part II and Part III of Annex C;
22. Upgrade and continually updating the inventory of unintentional POPs using
indigenously developed tools to measure UP-POPs. Using the upgraded tools estimate
more precisely current and projected releases;
23. Based on more realistic estimates identify strategies to meet release reduction obligations
of UP-POPs;
24. Promote the application of available, feasible and practical measures for achieving
release reduction or source elimination;
25. Promote the development and use of substitute or modified materials, products and
processes to prevent the release of Annex C chemicals;
26. Promote/adopt the use of BAT/BEP for new installations for industrial sources listed in
Part II of Annex C;
27. Promote BAT/BEP for existing installations for industrial sources listed in Part II and III
of Annex C.;
28. Review the strategies and report UP-POPs release reduction obligations every five years.
Contaminated sites and wastes
29. Ensure total disposal of the Aldrin and Dieldrin obsolete stocks located in Regional Plant
Protection and Quarantine Station (RPPQS) in Mumbai; Barmer, Bikaner, Sikar,
Jaisalmer and Kota in Rajasthan; Imphal in Manipur and Palampur in Gujarat;

30. Initiate measures to contain and clean PCBs in the ship breaking industry in Alang.
31. Enhance and continuously update and upgrade national inventory for POPs stockpiles
and wastes;
32. Secured storage of PCBs and PCBs contaminated equipment and wastes in the power
generation/distribution units, industrial plants and transformer repair sites to ensure that
it does not contaminate the environment;
33. Strengthening institutional capacities to undertake extensive coverage of preventive
measures required for the management of releases from POPs stockpiles and wastes;
34. Enhance the quality of temporary storages for DDT at various spray sites wherever
considered appropriate;
35. Wherever feasible provide dedicated transport facilities for carrying DDT;
36. Environmentally sound disposal of used DDT bags
37. Develop policy and legal frameworks for management of contaminated land/sites;
38. Strengthen institutional capacities for mitigation of contaminated sites;
39. Identification and prioritization of potential contaminated sites;
40. Selection of appropriate low-cost environmentally sound technologies required for
remediation; and
41. Remediation of selected contaminated sites.
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Anja Marie Bundgaard Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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I do not think Danes are very aware of the chemicals hiding in their smart phones and tablet. However, Denmark has implemented the RoHS Directive restricting the use of the following chemicals in EEE: Lead (Pb)
Mercury (Hg)
Cadmium (Cd)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)
Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP)
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Alexander Alberto Moreta de Los Santos Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In my opinion people in Dominican Republic are in general not aware about the dangers and risks of POPs in some products that contain plastics and electronic equipment. Those who work in this field are obvious aware of the issue however the general public is less informed on the matter. For this is very important, education campaigns is vital.
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Aluvinient Gonye Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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The problem starts from the lack of a proper definition of E-waste in Zimbabwe. People have not been informed on E-waste, most people are not aware of its possible impacts And benefit.

The is need for serious awareness and education on E-WASTE. The government should put a ban on importation of second hand material which does not even last for more than two years.

Developing countries are most vulnerable and worst affected because the technology is not fast enough to convince the population.

The lack of capacity to build recycling places for E-waste by the government has shown and can prove ignorance to the environment and human health. Government should support or put in place better ways of disposing waste in a sustainable manner.
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Siria Arlett Cortés Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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My country Mexico is a member part Convention Stockholm and Rotterdam since 2005 . However I think the mexican people is not aware about damage that produces the POPs. Not long ago, for example, the Federal Electricity Commission had a program that swap old refrigerators by new. and the people wasn't incredulous about that possibility, so they didn't participate but the CFE never said that program was to minimize management's BPCs. So the mexican people, at least where I'm from, switch their old refrigerators with recyclers scrap.
Other hand, the people burn all kind wastes in backyards. In my town the wastes recollection service is private, so the people rather not pay to recolectors and throwing garbage in the streets.
In summary, I think in my country not aware about the POPs and its consequences for health and environment.
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Marie-Helene ENRICI Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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France has ratified all conventions and has put in place some standards to recycle safely all articles that may contain POP:
http://www.afnor.org/fiches/faq-reglementation/dechets-d-equipements-electriques-et-electroniques-deee
However the key issue is that it is being a very long term process until the electronic devices reach the end of life and to achieve the recycling of all hazardous wastes.
In addition as seen in the first module, as we are far from collecting all ewastes, there is stil a significant amount of hazardous chemicals that enter the environment and may affect Health.

Even if Regulations are very complex, this long term process is fully justifying the complementarity between the Rotterdam, Basel and Stochholm Convention.
In addition to POP other substances defines as PBT/ vPvB under REACH Regulation may also be added as hazardous substances to regulate under the Basel Convention.

Looking at the bin in my building I am sure nobody is aware of the risks with disposal of electronic wastes or plastics that may contain POP substances. There are a few people making the effort to go to the local disposal centre for proper recycling.
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Ibukun Faluyi Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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Nigerians are almost completely ignorant of the existence and dangers associated with POPs. The associated risk are especially grave for recyclers, because these people are not aware that there that some plastics contain POPS. Recycling in Nigeria is a trade for the informal sector and most of the process involve manual handling and in most cases PPEs are not used. The only part of the part which involves the use of equipment is the crushing. The challenge is indeed great in this part of the world.
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Zornitsa Tsoneva Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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Bulgarian are not aware of the dangers of POPs, although we hear news from time to time that certain toys or equipment is withdrawn from the market because of dangerous substances used in their making. The relevant environmental authorities - national and regional, should be the ones keeping people aware of such threats and how to deal with e-waste that may contain POPs.
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Alan Long Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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The Netherlands

Rotterdam Convention
Signature: 11/09/1998
Ratification & Acceptance: 20/04/2000

Stockholm Convention
Signature: 23/05/2001
Ratification & Acceptance: 28/01/2002
Entry into force: 17/05/2004

Legislation in The Netherlands covering POP- PBDEs will be covered by the same EC directives as other European countries.

As for the awareness of the public over the dangers concerning plastics in general, people are becoming increasingly aware that plastics are bad for the environment. However, there is a general ignorance over how the chemicals, from POP-PBDEs for example, are absorded into the food chain and ultimately us.
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Joe Millington Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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Awareness is increasing in my country, though with discarding of e-waste to landfill still a common practice, there is still much progress to be made.

The Basel, Rotterdam, and Stockholm Conventions have all been implemented in my country, along with a landfill tax on sending waste to landfill.
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Nelly Carolina Cálix Mendoza Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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In 2015, CESCCO-MIAMBIENTE developed a preliminary national inventory of POP-PBDE’s on e-waste, and this was considered to actualize the National Implementation Plan for COP’s in Honduras.

It’s rare to find people aware of this kind of issues, but people are becoming increasingly aware and interest in knowing more about environemtal problems, even do, jus like Alan Long said, there is a general ignorance about chemical pollution and management in Honduras.
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Tahlia Ali Shah Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
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I think the public in general are not aware of the risks posed to them by everyday products that contain POP-PBDEs. The government of Trinidad and Tobago recently launched an awareness program in which flash cards detailed the different POPs were made available and an infomercial was developed to introduce the general public to POPs. I believe getting projects started in primary and secondary schools will initiate a real consciousness.
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